Romania’s electricity mix is one of the most balanced in the European Union, with coal, hydropower, natural gas, nuclear energy and wind power having comparable shares of capacity and power generation. Because of the country’s geographic characteristics there is a huge energy potential in biomass. Today only 0.34% of electricity produced in Romania is obtained from biomass, while thermal energy produced from biomass is up to 46%. The use of biomass for electricity production is a much more sustainable way to benefit from it, because electrical power can be used in a wide range of applications.


Romania is in south-eastern Europe, estimated population is 19 165 000. Romania occupies an area of 238 397 km2. The nation’s capital is Bucharest, the official language is Romanian.


Romania has a diverse energy mix, with a sizeable percentage of renewable energy.

Romania is the largest producer of oil and gas in Central and Eastern Europe and has the potential to dominate the European oil and gas market as a result of discoveries in the Black Sea, and after BREXIT (as UK was one of the largest marketplace for gas and electricity).

Romania currently has one nuclear power plant, Cernavodă, with two operational reactors with 1300 MWe capacity and two more are in the planning phase (pressurized heavy water reactors of CANDU 6 design – CANadian Deuterium Uranium), each with a design gross output of 706.5 MWe. The two reactors in operation supply approx. 20% of total energy production.

Romania produces pit coal and lignite and maintains several coal-fired powerplants – all needing upgrades in the immediate future in order to comply with European Commission guidelines.

In terms of energy consumption, in 2019, a little over 24% of energy consumption originated from renewable energy sources, placing Romania in 10th place in the EU and above the union’s average level. In 2020, electricity production in Romania was comprised of 12.4% wind power, 3.4% from photovoltaic solar panels, while 27.6% of the electricity production was coming from hydropower. In total, renewable energy production (wind, photovoltaic and biomass) amounted to 16%.


The country forms a complex geographic unit centred on the Transylvanian Basin, around which the peaks of the Carpathian Mountains and their associated subranges and structural platforms form a series of crescents. Beyond this zone, the extensive plains of the south and east of the country, their potential increased by the Danube River and its tributaries, form a fertile outer crescent extending to the frontiers. The relief of Romania is dominated by the Carpathian Mountains, which can be divided into the Eastern Carpathians, the Southern Carpathians, and the Western Carpathians. Tablelands are another important element in the physical geography of Romania. The tableland of the Transylvanian Basin is the largest in the country and has an average elevation of 350 metres. 


Romania’s location in the south-eastern portion of the European continent gives it a climate that is transitional between temperate regions and the harsher extremes of the continental interior. In the centre and west of the country, humid Atlantic climatic characteristics prevail; in the southeast the continental influences of the Russian Plain (East European Plain) make themselves felt; and in the extreme southeast there are even milder sub-Mediterranean influences. This overall pattern is substantially modified by the relief, however, and there are many examples of climatic zones induced by changes in elevation.


In the absence of lasting reform efforts, growing fiscal and current account deficits are putting the sustainability of Romania’s economic growth at risk. The public deficit has risen significantly, driven by current expenditure. The banking sector has remained solid, but financial intermediation is low. Poverty and inequality remain high, with limited access to services.

Unemployment rate: 3.06% (2019 est.) 3.56% (2018 est.)


Romania is located at a crossroads of European transport. Railways provide the main method of transportation for both freight and passengers in the country. Most of Romania’s system of national roads has been brought up to modern standards. The Danube River is a major transportation route between the Black Sea, the Middle East, and western Europe. International traffic has grown in significance, and there are international airports in Constanța, Cluj-NapocaAradTimișoara, and Sibiu.